Postcards in Category Snow

two eagles each holding the same nest building stick on rocky ledge, snow & mountains behind 584-B
two eagles each holding the same nest building stick on rocky ledge, snow & mountains behind
Set Title
ADLER the eagle, king of birds
Set Comment

OILETTE, suffix B, same image, English back 4083 THE EAGLE--KING OF BIRDS, NACH DEN ORIGINAL-OELGEMALDEN VON H. SCHMIDT-BERLIN.

Card Comment

golden eagles with brown head & black beak

Estimate
$15.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
alpine inn in the snow (untitled, title taken from 7502) 201-B
alpine inn in the snow (untitled, title taken from 7502)
Set Title
ALPEN (on printing with OILETTE back), untitled on cards with international backs, IN THE ALPS on packet
Set Comment

OILETTE (WIDE-WIDE-WORLD on packet not on card), suffix B, u/b, GESETZLICH GESCHUTZT. UNSER GESAMTER VERLAG TRAGT DIESE SCHUTZMARKE (in stamp box with Tuck logo) cards with International backs backs were sold in packet inscribed in English IN THE ALPS, d/b OILETTE, same images, OILETTE WIDE-WIDE-WORLD 7502, listed in 1908/1909 Catalogue

Places
Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
hunting snowman looks down at three rabbits 599
hunting snowman looks down at three rabbits
Set Title
ANGEPUTZTE SCHNEEMANNER snow people
Set Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs

Card Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs, AJOYEUX NOEL(2 types)

Estimate
$45.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snowman holds umbrella blown inside out, four birds on snow belowbird dance to it 599
snowman holds umbrella blown inside out, four birds on snow belowbird dance to it
Set Title
ANGEPUTZTE SCHNEEMANNER snow people
Set Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs

Card Comment

comes opt. in red MES MEILLEURS VOEX or GLUCK ZUM NEUEN JAHRE

Estimate
$45.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snowwoman feeds birds 599
snowwoman feeds birds
Set Title
ANGEPUTZTE SCHNEEMANNER snow people
Set Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs

Card Comment

comes opt. in violet GLUCK ZUM NEUEN JAHRE

Estimate
$45.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snow-woman knits, squirrel below 599
snow-woman knits, squirrel below
Set Title
ANGEPUTZTE SCHNEEMANNER snow people
Set Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs

Card Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs, comes opt in red SOUHAITES SINCERES or GLUCK ZUM NEUEN JAHRE

Estimate
$45.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snowwoman plays trombone, two squirrels & bird dance to it 599
snowwoman plays trombone, two squirrels & bird dance to it
Set Title
ANGEPUTZTE SCHNEEMANNER snow people
Set Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs

Card Comment

comes opt. in red MES MEILLEURS VOEX or BONNE ANNEE

Estimate
$45.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snowwoman walks left, two rabbits behnd 599
snowwoman walks left, two rabbits behnd
Set Title
ANGEPUTZTE SCHNEEMANNER snow people
Set Comment

OILETTE, 2 backs

Card Comment

comes opt. in red GLUK ZUM NEUEN JAHRE

Estimate
$45.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
"I'M DREAMING OF A WHITE CHRISTMAS" unhappy Hitler sits freezing in the snow 8
"I'M DREAMING OF A WHITE CHRISTMAS"  unhappy Hitler sits freezing in the snow
Set Title
Anti-Hitler, World War II
Set Comment

PRINTED IN ENGLAND, WITH ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TO THE PARAMOUNT PICTURE "HOLIDAY INN"

Estimate
$20.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
winter night scene, much snow, red moon, two birds 1047
winter night scene, much snow, red moon, two birds
Set Title
ART greetings, art deco
Set Comment

PRINTED IN GERMANY, deep blue back

Estimate
$6.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
farmhouse left, two horses & sleigh, snow 253
farmhouse left, two horses & sleigh, snow
Set Title
art, rural scenes
Set Comment

u/b, UN MOT A LA POSTE, (DEPOSE), International backs, come with grey CHICOREE ARLATTE & CIE. PREMIERE MARQUE FRANCAISE advert on back

Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
three doll children toboggan on snow 889
three doll children toboggan on snow
Set Title
AUF DER RODELBAHN personised dolls, German
Set Comment

OILETTE, NACH ORIGINALPUPPEN VON KATE KRUSE, GEMALT VON FRITZ HILDEBRANDT.

Card Comment

come opt in red BUON CAPO D'ANNO

Estimate
$30.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
snow scene, alley with houses right, fence & tree left, street light left 957
snow scene, alley with houses right, fence & tree left, street light left
Set Title
AUS STILLEN GASSCHEN from a quiet alley
Set Comment

OILETTE

Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snow scene, alley with tall houses right & at end, steps to house right 957
snow scene, alley with tall houses right & at end, steps to house right
Set Title
AUS STILLEN GASSCHEN from a quiet alley
Set Comment

OILETTE

Card Comment

comes opt. in blue HERZLICHE NEUJAHRSGRUSSE

Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snow scene stream from back to front under bridge, houses both sides, prominent fence 957
snow scene stream  from back to front under bridge, houses both sides, prominent fence
Set Title
AUS STILLEN GASSCHEN from a quiet alley
Set Comment

OILETTE

Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
UNE BONNE BOUFFEE man in pale brown coat , green hat, smoking upside down pipe outdoors in snow, faces left looks front 433
UNE BONNE BOUFFEE man in pale brown coat , green hat, smoking upside down pipe outdoors in snow, faces left looks front
Set Title
A VOTRE SANTE (1904 list), French
Set Comment

UN MOT A LA POSTE (DEPOSE), same image English back, 1305, HUMOROUS, HERE'S A HEALTH, 8054 CHRISTMAS

Estimate
$15.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
WHEN THE WOLDS ARE RIBB'D WITH SNOW horse drawn cart stops along snowy path 5324
WHEN THE WOLDS ARE RIBB'D WITH SNOW horse drawn cart stops along snowy path
Set Title
A WHITE WORLD, SERIES I.
Set Comment

REAL PHOTOGRAPH, platemarked style,listed in 1911/1912 Postcard Catalogue, same images & quotes 5324 THE GLORIES OF WINTER, SERIES I., all have Christmas greetings printed on back

Card Comment

quote TENNYSON, back:- TO WISH YOU A ... HAPPY CHRISTMAS

Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
boy in snow with two dogs beside him, and has skies on 6560
boy in snow with two dogs beside him, and has skies on
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL CHILDREN
Set Comment

SILVERETTE, PHOTOTYPED IN HESSIA (in stamp box), grey scale

Card Comment

comes with slight purple/black colour variation

Estimate
$5.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
girl on path, snowing, two steps behind her, fence opening behind that 6560
girl on path, snowing, two steps behind her, fence opening behind that
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL CHILDREN
Set Comment

SILVERETTE, PHOTOTYPED IN HESSIA (in stamp box), grey scale

Estimate
$5.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
A COLD SHELTER two cows shelter under open sided barn in snow 9028
A COLD SHELTER  two cows shelter under open sided barn in snow
Set Title
beautiful white winter
Set Comment

OILETTE, PRINTED IN ENGLAND, listed in 1908/1909 Postcard Catalogue

Card Comment

comes opt. in red WITH NEW YEAR GREETINGS,or CHRISTMAS GREETINGS!, or opt. in gilt A HAPPY NEW YEAR, comes beaded
Same image comes Tuck Ephemera greeting card, artist

Estimate
$8.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
man with bag slung over shoulder walking in snow toward cabin 9006
man with bag slung over shoulder walking in snow toward cabin
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL WHITE WINTER or WINTER SCENES
Set Comment

OILETTE, PROCESSED IN BERLIN (in stamp box), come beaded, same images CHRISTMAS SERIES III, listed in 1908/1909 Catalogue

Card Comment

comes opt. in red CHRISTMAS GREETINGS, WITH BEST CHRISTMAS WISHES,A BRIGHT & HAPPY NEW YEAR, comes opt. in green A HAPPY NEW YEAR

Estimate
$4.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
three people walking in snow, large windmill at left 9006
three people walking in snow, large windmill at left
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL WHITE WINTER or WINTER SCENES
Set Comment

OILETTE, PROCESSED IN BERLIN (in stamp box), come beaded, same images CHRISTMAS SERIES III, listed in 1908/1909 Catalogue

Card Comment

comes opt. in red TO WISH YOU A HAPPY CHRISTMAS, CHRISTMAS GREETINGS, in blue HAPPY NEW YEAR

Estimate
$4.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
A HAPPY CHRISTMAS two cows shelter under open sided barn in snow 3
A HAPPY CHRISTMAS  two cows shelter under open sided barn in snow
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL WHITE WINTER, SERIES 3
Set Comment

PRINTED IN ENGLAND, gilt title and verse, come beaded, listed in 1911/1912 Catalogue, same images 9567 THE DEPTH OF WINTER

Card Comment

comes beaded, this image in 9028, A COLD SHELTER

Estimate
$8.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
A MERRY CHRISTMAS three horses, one eats from manger in snow 3
A MERRY CHRISTMAS  three horses, one eats from manger in snow
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL WHITE WINTER, SERIES 3
Set Comment

PRINTED IN ENGLAND, gilt title and verse, come beaded, listed in 1911/1912 Catalogue, same images 9567 THE DEPTH OF WINTER

Card Comment

this image in 9028, THE FARMYARD IN WINTER
Same image comes Tuck Ephemera greeting card, artist

Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
CHRISTMAS GREETINGS verse, man & dog walk in front of cottage, snow, trees & mountain 3
CHRISTMAS GREETINGS  verse, man & dog walk in front of cottage, snow, trees & mountain
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL WHITE WINTER, SERIES 3.
Set Comment

PRINTED IN ENGLAND, gilt title and verse, come beaded, same images 9567 THE DEPTH OF WINTER & C 998.

Estimate
$4.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
CHRISTMAS GREETINGS verse, three deer in snowy beech woods 3
CHRISTMAS GREETINGS  verse, three deer in snowy beech woods
Set Title
BEAUTIFUL WHITE WINTER, SERIES 3.
Set Comment

PRINTED IN ENGLAND, gilt title and verse, come beaded, same images 9567 THE DEPTH OF WINTER & C 998.

Estimate
$4.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
night snow scene, couple drive antique car front on country road, she scatters flowers 846-suffix P
night snow scene, couple drive antique car front on country road, she scatters flowers
Set Title
before the festivities
Set Comment

UN MOT A LA POSTE, (DEPOSE), suffix P, come with CHICOREE SUPERIEURE PROTEZ-DELATRE CAMBRAI ad.in black or A LA GRANDE FABRIQUE A. PREVOST, TAILLEUR, 9 GAMBETTA, 9-LE CARTEAU (NORD) or ALLEZ TOUS....A LA GRANDE CHAPELLERIE DES ARCADES CHEZ RAYMOND CHARLEVILLE...all on back

Estimate
$15.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
night snow scene, man assists woman in filmy dress & fur coat descend from antique car 846-suffix P
night snow scene, man assists woman in filmy dress & fur coat descend from antique car
Set Title
before the festivities
Set Comment

UN MOT A LA POSTE, (DEPOSE), suffix P, come with CHICOREE SUPERIEURE PROTEZ-DELATRE CAMBRAI ad.in black or A LA GRANDE FABRIQUE A. PREVOST, TAILLEUR, 9 GAMBETTA, 9-LE CARTEAU (NORD) or ALLEZ TOUS....A LA GRANDE CHAPELLERIE DES ARCADES CHEZ RAYMOND CHARLEVILLE...all on back

Card Comment

comes opt. in gilt or white MES MEILLEURS VOEUX
( Meaning Best Wishes )

Estimate
$15.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snow scene, couple drive right in motor cycle with side-car, bringing roses 846-suffix P
snow scene, couple drive right in motor cycle with side-car, bringing roses
Set Title
before the festivities
Set Comment

UN MOT A LA POSTE, (DEPOSE), suffix P, come with CHICOREE SUPERIEURE PROTEZ-DELATRE CAMBRAI ad.in black or A LA GRANDE FABRIQUE A. PREVOST, TAILLEUR, 9 GAMBETTA, 9-LE CARTEAU (NORD) or ALLEZ TOUS....A LA GRANDE CHAPELLERIE DES ARCADES CHEZ RAYMOND CHARLEVILLE...all on back

Estimate
$15.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
snow scene, woman bringing flowers knocks on door observed by two children in open lighted window 846-suffix P
snow scene, woman bringing flowers knocks on door observed by two children in open lighted window
Set Title
before the festivities
Set Comment

UN MOT A LA POSTE, (DEPOSE), suffix P, come with CHICOREE SUPERIEURE PROTEZ-DELATRE CAMBRAI ad.in black or A LA GRANDE FABRIQUE A. PREVOST, TAILLEUR, 9 GAMBETTA, 9-LE CARTEAU (NORD) or ALLEZ TOUS....A LA GRANDE CHAPELLERIE DES ARCADES CHEZ RAYMOND CHARLEVILLE...all on back

Estimate
$15.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
boar, deer, rabbit toboggan down hill 319
boar, deer, rabbit toboggan down hill
Set Title
BEIM WINTERSPORT animals as people
Set Comment

OILETTE

Card Comment

comes opt. in red PROSIT NEUJAHR

Estimate
$40.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
BIRTHDAY GREETINGS butterfly, rose, cottage in background 3000
BIRTHDAY GREETINGS  butterfly, rose, cottage in background
Set Title
Birthday snow scenes & blossoms
Set Comment

OILETTE, PRINTED IN ENGLAND, COPYRIGHT LONDON, same basic images come in many sets: BIRTHDAY R 102 & CHRISTMAS C 1036 & C 2002 & Easter E 1627 & 162 7 (no prefix) & 3268 & 8659

Card Comment

verse:- I WISH YOU HAPPY, THROUGH ALL TIME NOT ONLY FOR TO-DAY - BUT EVER AS LIFE'S SLOPE YOU CLIMB - JOY'S SUNSHINE LIGHT YOUR WAY.

Estimate
$2.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
MANY HAPPY RETURNS OF THE DAY rural scene, smoking chimney cottage behind, butterfly 3000
MANY HAPPY RETURNS OF THE DAY  rural scene, smoking chimney cottage behind, butterfly
Set Title
Birthday snow scenes & blossoms
Set Comment

OILETTE, PRINTED IN ENGLAND, COPYRIGHT LONDON, same basic images come in many sets: BIRTHDAY R 102 & CHRISTMAS C 1036 & C 2002 & Easter E 1627 & 162 7 (no prefix) & 3268 & 8659

Card Comment

verse:- FULL MUCH I WISH FOR YOU TO-DAY BUT FEW WORDS MUST MY HOPES EXPRESS THAT EVERYTHING THAT COMES YOUR WAY WILL BE WRAPPED UP IN HAPPINESS, same image comes in many sets, see BIRTHDAY R 102

Estimate
$2.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
TO GREET YOUR BIRTHDAY butterfly, rose, church in background 3000
TO GREET YOUR BIRTHDAY  butterfly, rose, church in background
Set Title
Birthday snow scenes & blossoms
Set Comment

OILETTE, PRINTED IN ENGLAND, COPYRIGHT LONDON, same basic images come in many sets: BIRTHDAY R 102 & CHRISTMAS C 1036 & C 2002 & Easter E 1627 & 162 7 (no prefix) & 3268 & 8659

Card Comment

verse:- A SIMPLE TOKEN I SEND YOU A WISH THAT IS FOND AND TRUE THAT NEVER A CLOUD OR A SHADOW SHALL DARKEN YOUR SKIES OF BLUE.

Estimate
$2.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
A HAPPY BIRTHDAY snow scene, cottage behind, roses left 3001
A HAPPY BIRTHDAY  snow scene, cottage behind, roses left
Set Title
Birthday snow scenes & blossoms
Set Comment

OILETTE, PRINTED IN ENGLAND, COPYRIGHT LONDON, same images Christmas C 1043

Card Comment

verse:- BRIGHTEST DAYS AND SUNNIEST WAYS- FAIREST FLOWERS OF FRAGRANCE, SONGS OF CHEER AND FRIENDSHIPS DEAR FILL YOUR LIFE WITH RADIANCE.

Estimate
$3.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
BIRTHDAY GREETINGS snow scene, cottage right behind, wild roses, blossom tree 3001
BIRTHDAY GREETINGS  snow scene, cottage right behind, wild roses, blossom tree
Set Title
Birthday snow scenes & blossoms
Set Comment

OILETTE, PRINTED IN ENGLAND, COPYRIGHT LONDON, same images Christmas C 1043

Card Comment

verse:- WHATEVER PATHS OF LIFE YOU TREAD MAY HOPE'S BRIGHT STAR SHINE OVERHEAD AND WHERESO'ER YOU TURN//JOY ARISE.

Estimate
$3.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
MANY HAPPY RETURNS OF THE DAY snow scene, church 3001
MANY HAPPY RETURNS OF THE DAY  snow scene, church
Set Title
Birthday snow scenes & blossoms
Set Comment

OILETTE, PRINTED IN ENGLAND, COPYRIGHT LONDON, same images Christmas C 1043

Card Comment

verse:- FAIR LANDS OF GOLDEN MEMORIES BEHIND! FAIR LANDS OF HOPE BEFORE! AND MAY A THOUGHT ABOUT YOUR HEART//OF YORE.

Estimate
$3.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
A HAPPY BIRTHDAY rose, church, butterfly R102
A HAPPY BIRTHDAY  rose, church, butterfly
Set Title
BIRTHDAY snow scenes & blossoms
Set Comment

embossed, CHROMOGRAPHED IN BAVARIA, same basic images come in many sets: BIRTHDAY 3000 & 3003, 3268, CHRISTMAS C 1036 & C 2002 & Easter 1627 (no prefix) & E 1627 & 8659

Card Comment

verse:- ALL GOOD FORTUNE ON YOUR BIRTHDAY, AND THROUGHOUT THE COMING YEAR EVERY HAPPINESS//DEAR.

Estimate
$3.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
LOVE GREETINGS TO MY VALENTINE boy in blue buries heart in snow 23
LOVE GREETINGS TO MY VALENTINE  boy in blue buries heart in snow
Set Title
BLUE BELLES, VALENTINE, sunbonnets
Set Comment

PRINTED IN SAXONY

Estimate
$10.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
THE PATH THRO' THE SNOW 2634
THE PATH THRO' THE SNOW
Set Title
BRONX PARK - NEW YORK
Set Comment

PHOTOCHROMED IN SAXONY

Places
Estimate
$6.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
2 insets, top: three personized cats sit singing on wall, bottom: three youths in old style dress sing carols in snow 1047
2 insets, top: three personized cats sit singing on wall, bottom: three  youths in old style dress sing carols in snow
Set Title
CALENDAR comic sketches, old style dress
Set Comment

CALENDAR, CHROMOGRAPHED IN BAVARIA (in stamp box), perforated cards

Estimate
$8.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
WHERE SNOW LIES DEEP sheep coming through gate which shepherd holds open, church behind 282
WHERE SNOW LIES DEEP  sheep coming through gate which shepherd holds open, church behind
Set Title
CALENDAR rural scenes
Set Comment

CHROMOGRAPHED IN SAXONY, come RAPHAEL TUCK & SONS CO. LTD, LONDON, PARIS, NEW YORK, DESIGNED IN ENGLAND, PRINTED IN SAXONY, cards with perforations top & bottom from 1905 calendar

Estimate
$4.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
THE FLAG OF CANADA AND AN ARTILLERY SOLDIER with rifle at ready, on snow-shoes
THE FLAG OF CANADA AND AN ARTILLERY SOLDIER with rifle at ready, on snow-shoes
Set Title
Canadian Patriotic
Set Comment

PAINTING POSTCARD, PRINTED IN GERMANY

Places
Estimate
$35.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
two pretty women in old style dresses walk left/front in snow, one wears muff 203
two pretty women in old style dresses walk left/front in snow, one wears muff
Set Title
capricieuses (1904 list) capricious ladies, in gilt embossed nouveau surround
Set Comment

u/b, gilt embossed, UN MOT A LA POSTE, (DEPOSE), u/b, come with adverts CHAPEAU VALLENTIN LILLE-ROUBAIX or MOKA WILLIOT

Estimate
$50.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
three kittens in snow, one plays with leaf 8884
three kittens in snow, one plays with leaf
Set Title
CATLAND, SERIES II.
Set Comment

OILETTE, COPYRIGHT LONDON, PRINTED IN ENGLAND or PRINTED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, come o/f but not so trade named, 3 backs, with or w/o AFTER THE ORIGINAL PAINTING BY B. COBBE., listed in 1926/1927 Postcard catalogue

Estimate
$9.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
COLMAN'S STARCH Dutch boy in clogs, smoking pipe 1502
COLMAN'S STARCH  Dutch boy in clogs, smoking pipe
Set Title
CELEBRATED POSTERS (set 3 not on cards)
Set Comment

u/bv or d/b, ART or COLLECTOR'S POSTCARD SERIES, listed in 1904 POSTCARD Catalogue

Card Comment

BY PERMISSION OF J. & J. COLMAN

Estimate
$60.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
HOE'S SAUCE man in snowdrift 1505
HOE'S SAUCE  man in snowdrift
Set Title
CELEBRATED POSTERS (set 6 not on cards)
Set Comment

COLLECTOR'S POSTCARD SERIES, listed in 1904 POSTCARD Catalogue

Card Comment

BY PERMISSION OF MESSERS. HOE & CO., LTD., come opt. in blue with or w/o verse:- A TRAVELLER BY THE FAITHFUL HOUND, HALF BURIED IN HE SNOW//WELL-KNOWN HOE'S.

Estimate
$85.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
MISS MADGE LESSING & CHORUS snow scene with sled T1013
MISS MADGE LESSING & CHORUS snow scene with sled
Set Title
CELEBRITIES OF THE STAGE actresses
Set Comment

REAL PHOTOGRAPH

Card Comment

opt. gold A HAPPY CHRISTMAS same image1012, PHOTO DOVER STREET STUDIOS

Estimate
$6.00 USD
Orientation
Horizontal
MISS PHYLLIS DARE snow scene, wearing furs, standing facing left, looking front T265
MISS PHYLLIS DARE  snow scene, wearing furs, standing facing left, looking front
Set Title
CELEBRITIES OF THE STAGE (T250-299)
Set Comment

REAL PHOTOGRAPH

Estimate
$6.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical
MISSES ZENA & PHYLLIS DARE snow scene both wearing fox furs, facing left, looking front T269
MISSES ZENA & PHYLLIS DARE  snow scene both wearing fox furs, facing left, looking front
Set Title
CELEBRITIES OF THE STAGE (T250-299)
Set Comment

REAL PHOTOGRAPH

Card Comment

hand coloured, comes gilt opt. A HAPPY CHRISTMAS

Estimate
$8.00 USD
Orientation
Vertical